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In Microsoft FrontPage, there is a file on your computer that is used as the 'template' for the new_page_1.htm that's created either when you open your web or when you hit the "New Page" button. The file is called "Normal.htm".
In a normal install of FrontPage 2000 and 2002, this file is in C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Templates\1033\Pages\normal.tem\
In a normal install of FrontPage 2003, this file is in C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Templates\1033\PAGES11\normal.tem\
You can open this file in FrontPage and edit it like you would any other web page. Navigate to the directory where the file is located, open the file and choose File | Properties. You can add things that you want to be common to all the new web pages you create from this point on in all your webs, like Meta tags and DOCTYPE.
Here's one you can copy and paste into the template, it goes before the <html> tag (in HTML View).
When you've added it, do a File | Save As Normal.htm (Yes, you want to overwrite the file). From that point on, every new page you create will have a valid DOCTYPE declaration.
N.B. There are two exceptions to this - when you create a new web and a home page is created for that web (either index.htm or Default.htm), it doesn't appear that the Normal.htm file gets used as a template.
In FrontPage 2002 and FrontPage 2003, there are several wizards you can use to create a new web - these wizards do not use the Normal.htm file as a template when creating the new web.
For more information about DOCTYPE, go to these pages at the W3C: